Immunotherapy - revolution in cancer medicine
Vaccination strategies - a new class of cancer medicine
Great advances in cancer treatments have been made over the last years, especially in the emerging field of cancer immunotherapy - treatments that harness and augment the capacity of the immune system to detect and treat cancer cells.
It is known, that tumors show the accumulation of several genetic modifications, thus providing cancer cells with the selective growth advantage to initiate expansion. Now, sophisticated high-throughput technologies (GP, TAA, ...) enable the identification of these mutated genes in cancers, leading to a potent targeted immunotherapy.
An immunomodulating agent with multiple activities, including modulation of complement activation, suppression of various inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, and metalloproteinases.
Oligo-Immunotherapy Strategy is a promising cancer treatment that effectively activates apoptosis and conquer immunosuppression by applying it intra-tumorally/close to the tumor region.
Checkpoint antibodies / Checkpoint block Anti-PD-1/L-1 & Anti-CTLA-4
The development of checkpoint blocking antibodies, such as those directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 receptor (PD1/L-1), has shown to be one of the most promising approaches to activating therapeutic antitumor immunity in the treatment of an expanding list of malignancies.
Immune checkpoints refer to a wide range of inhibitory pathways that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance and modulation of immune responses in order to minimize tissue damage. But it is now known that tumors modify certain immune-checkpoint pathways as a major mechanism of immune resistance, particularly against T cells that are specific for recognition and targeting of tumor antigens.
Many of these regulatory immune checkpoints can now be blocked by antibodies or modulated by recombinant forms of ligands and receptors. Checkpoint blocking antibodies (anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1/L-1), have shown great success already in clinical studies. By blocking CTLA-4 and PD-1, these checkpoint antibodies enhance the function of T cells to fight cancer cells.
A trifunctional antibody is a monoclonal antibody with binding sites for two different antigens, typically CD3 and a tumor antigen, making it a type of bispecific monoclonal antibody. In addition, its intact Fc-part can bind to an Fc receptor on accessory cells like conventional monospecific antibodies. Consequently, immune cells like T cells (via CD3) and monocytes/macrophages, nature killer cells, dendritic cells or other Fc receptor expressing cells are linked to the tumor cells, leading to their elimination.
Antibody-drug conjugates or ADCs are an important class of highly potent biopharmaceutical drugs designed as a targeted therapy for cancer treatments. Unlike chemotherapy, ADCs are intended to target and kill only cancer cells and spare healthy cells. ADCs are complex molecules composed of an antibody linked to a biologically active cytotoxic (anticancer) drug.
Oncolytic virus therapy has recently been recognized as a promising new therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. An oncolytic virus is defined as a genetically engineered or naturally occurring virus that can selectively replicate in and kill cancer cells while sparing normal tissues. Oncolytic virus therapy uses the virus itself as an active drug reagent.